Davis, D. 1994. Reaching Out to Children With Fas/Fae: A Handbook for Teachers, Counselors, and Parents Who Live and Work With Children Affected by Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Center for Applied Research in Education.

"Reaching Out To Children With FAS/FAE is written specifically for those who parent, caretake, teach, or counsel children with fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. The book includes an overview of what causes fetal alcohol syndrome, how it is diagnosed, and what characteristics are commonly seen in these children. It also offers many suggestions and hands-on techniques for establishing guidelines at home and school, reinforcing appropriate behaviors, dealing effectively with inappropriate behaviors, building self-esteem, diffusing anger outbursts, and teaching social skills and basic life skills."

Dorris, M. 1992 (paperback reprint). Broken Cord Tv Tie-I. [Other editions include: Audio Cassette (Abridged) | Hardcover (Large Print) | Library Binding (1999)]

Ingram - "Michael Dorris' story of his adopted son Adam, born with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), explores the enormous scope of the disease and parallels one father's endless battle to overcome the problem. Now an ABC-TV movie." Volume may include a foreword by Dorris' wife, the writer Louise Erdrich."

Falkner, L. 2002. I Would Be Loved. Publishing Inc.

Kleinfeld, J. (Ed), et al. 2000. Fantastic Antone Grows Up: Adolescents and Adults With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. University of Alaska Press.

"A field guide to life with an adolescent or young adult with FAS/FAE. It consists of separate chapters written by psychologists, teachers, birth and adoptive parents, and alcohol-affected individuals themselves. "

From Book News, Inc.: "In this sequel to Fantastic Antone Succeeds, young people with fetal alcohol syndrome/effects (FAS/E) and their caregivers report on their experiences coping with the problems of adolescence and young adulthood. Emphasis is placed on techniques which do and do not work in the process of navigating the teenage years successfully."

Kleinfeld, J. (Ed), et al. 1993. Fantastic Antone Succeeds!: Experiences in Educating Children With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. University of Alaska Press.

From Book News, Inc.: "Stemming from a conference on educating children with FAS held in Fairbanks, Alaska, in 1991, these articles provide families, teachers, and parents with practical advice, and personal stories. Three themes emerge: negative stereotypes of FAS are misleading; early intervention and care make a big difference; and educational strategies are being developed."


Prenatal exposure to alcohol. Alcohol Research & Health : The Journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [Alcohol Res Health] 2000; 24 (1), pp. 32-41.

Medline database abstract: "Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, of which fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most devastating. Recognizable by characteristic craniofacial abnormalities and growth deficiency, this condition includes severe alcohol-induced damage to the developing brain. FAS children experience deficits in intellectual functioning; difficulties in learning, memory, problem-solving, and attention; and difficulties with mental health and social interactions. An FAS diagnosis, however, fails to identify prenatal-alcohol-exposed children who lack the characteristic facial defects and growth deficiency of FAS. Nonetheless, these often undiagnosed children may still experience serious fetal alcohol effects (FAE), including alcohol-induced mental impairments (i.e., alcohol-related neurodevelopment disorder) or alcohol-related abnormalities of the skeleton and certain organ systems (i.e., alcohol-related birth defects). Neuroimaging techniques can assist researchers in identifying FAE through precise pictures of brain abnormalities in persons prenatally exposed to alcohol. By understanding the mechanisms underlying FAE and the behavioral manifestations of the resulting structural brain damage, researchers can ultimately develop effective FAS prevention strategies that identify and assist high-risk women at varying levels of pregnancy."

Appelbaum MG. Fetal alcohol syndrome: diagnosis, management, and prevention. Nurse practitioner [Nurse Pract] 1995 Oct; 20 (10), pp. 24, 27-28, 31-33 passim.

Medline database abstract: "Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE) encompass a pattern of birth defects in persons whose mother ingested alcohol during pregnancy. Persons with FAE display fewer of the FAS traits. The hallmarks of FAS are pre- and postnatal growth retardation, central nervous system dysfunction, and characteristic facial dysmorphology. However, its effects can be multi-systemic--encompassing the cardiac, skeletal, and muscular systems, as well as presenting as lack of coordination, hyperactivity, diminished or distorted sense of danger, and lack of ability to function as an independent adult. The frequent incidence of this constellation of symptoms has a far-reaching impact (familial, medical, educational, and societal) because a myriad of professionals and large amounts of funding are used to help manage FAS/FAE children and adults. This article identifies, for a primary care provider, the essential characteristics of FAS/FAE and discusses available management options. Early diagnosis and continued education are advantageous at all levels, benefiting the individual and all of society."

Bowden R; Rust D. A review of fetal alcohol syndrome for health educators. Journal of Health Education (J HEALTH EDUC), 2000 Jul-Aug; 31(4): 231-7 (62 ref)

CINAHL database abstract: "The consumption of alcohol during pregnancy is the cause of physical and behavioral defects known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The diagnosis of FAS is determined by the following three criteria: (I) growth retardation, (2) central nervous system involvement (i.e., mental retardation), and (3) facial abnormalities. FAS is a long-term disability that requires appropriate educational interventions for high-risk women and expectant mothers. This article reviews the issues of cause, incidence/prevalence, comorbidity, educational implications for the child with FAS, those at-risk for FAS, prevention strategies, and concludes with the role health educators can play in FAS prevention."

Burd, L.; Cox, C.; Fjelstad, K.; McCulloch, K. Screening for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Is It Feasible and Necessary? Addiction Biology, Apr2000, Vol. 5 Issue 2, p127, 13p

Abstract from author: "The potential to utilize screening strategies to improve the identification and outcome of persons with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is reviewed. FAS is a condition where screening and surveillance activities would be appropriate. Development of FAS screening and surveillance programs is encouraged because the disorder is expensive. People with FAS have poor outcomes as adults with less than 10% living independently. Several useful tools and models are available. Screening would improve ascertainment and prevalence estimates. Early identification could improve access to services and long term outcome, secondary disabilities and, by extension, excess disability in affected children could be decreased. Lastly, mothers who are at the highest risk to have additional children with FAS could be identified and offered treatment. While both screening and surveillance activities are discussed, the principle focus of this article is a review of the screening process. Two screening tools and several screening methodologies for FAS are available. Since no test will be appropriate in all settings, screening tests need to be selected depending on the setting and population of interest. Screening for FAS should be conducted in a variety of settings and in populations of both high and moderate risk. The results would also provide important data to influence public policy development and resource allocation. Appropriate evaluation of the efficacy, efficiency and effectiveness of FAS screening tools and methodologies would be important before utilization in screening programs."

Connor, Paul D.; Streissguth, Ann P. Effects of Prenatal Exposure To Alcohol Across the Life Span. Alcohol Health & Research World, 1996, 20(3): 170-

Abstract from the article: "Prenatal exposure to alcohol can have many detrimental effects throughout the life span. Of primary concern are changes in the brain that lead to deficiencies in cognitive functioning, including memory and learning problems, attention deficits, poor motor coordination, and difficulties with problem-solving. These cognitive deficiencies create long-standing problems in many spheres of life, including disturbances in work, school, and social functioning. Treatment strategies that have been used with other cognitively impaired populations may be adapted to assist patients who display the various cognitive symptoms associated with prenatal alcohol exposure."

Cramer C; Davidhizar R. FAS/FAE: Impact On Children... Fetal Alcohol Syndrome... Fetal Alcohol Effects. Journal of Child Health Care (J CHILD HEALTH CARE), 1999 Autumn; 3(3): 31-4 (9 ref)

CINAHL database abstract: "Alcohol is a teratogen and it can cause lasting birth defects called Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)/Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). FAS is one of the leading causes of mental retardation. FAS/MAE can result in a myriad of behavioral, learning and developmental problems. There are estimates of 12,000 new cases of FAS yearly. The school nurse plays an important advocacy and educational role in helping the child with FAS. Family involvement is important for the child with FAS."

Duckworth, S.; Norton, T. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects- Support for Teachers and Families. Dimensions of Early Childhood v28 n3 p19-23 Sum 2000

ERIC database abstract: "Reviews genesis of fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects in children. Identifies physical characteristics and behavioral indicators found and provides three checklists of observable signs for both disorders. Recommends seven steps for educators to follow in seeking assistance with these conditions."

Gardner J. Living with a child with fetal alcohol syndrome. MCN. The American journal of maternal child nursing [MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs] 2000 Sep-Oct; 25 (5), pp. 252-7.

Medline database abstract: "PURPOSE: To describe the experiences of foster parents who are living with a child diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). DESIGN AND METHOD: A qualitative approach was selected due to the paucity of knowledge on the topic. Eight foster mothers living with children with FAS were studied. These foster parents had parented a collective total of 17 children with FAS, ranging between the ages of 2 and 16. Each in-depth interview was unstructured and consisted of open-ended questions. Data were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Foster parents described many difficult issues needing attention in children with FAS. Cognitive concerns included diminished memory/comprehension, lack of understanding of consequences, and the absence of fear. Behavioral management was a problem due to the frequent occurrence of hyperactivity, aggressiveness, destructiveness, and high pain tolerance. Parents also described problems in coping with daily realities of life with a child with FAS including the necessity of providing consistency, coping strategies, and fears for the child's future. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Nurses need to understand the complex problems that face affected children and their families. Understanding the daily realities of living with children with FAS allows nurses to realistically assess childrens' abilities, maximize their development, and provide for their needs more effectively, as well as assisting families to cope with the behavior and cognitive issues so apparent in children with FAS."

Green HL; Diaz-Gonzalez de Ferris ME; et al. Caring for the child with fetal alcohol syndrome. JAAPA: official journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants [JAAPA] 2002 Jun; 15 (6), pp. 31-34, 37-40.

Medline database abstract: "Physical and behavioral difficulties can beset the child exposed to alcohol in utero. Timely intervention can lessen their severity." []

Harwood, M.; Kleinfeld, J. Up Front, in Hope: The Value of Early Intervention for Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Young Children v57 n4 p86-90 Jul 2002

ERIC database abstract: "Differentiates fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) from fetal alcohol effects (FAE) and discusses difficulties in diagnosing these conditions. Describes the effects of FAS/FAE on young children, detailing impact on sensory processing, focusing attention, and cognitive development in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Presents suggestions for caregivers and teachers; also discusses the importance of early intervention for children with FAS/FAE even when no delays have been observed."

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Tenth Special Report to the U.S. Congress on Alcohol and Health: Highlights from Current Research, NIH Publication No. 00-1583, Bethesda, MD: Department of Health and Human Services, 2000, pp. 283-338. [Government Document]

Phelps, L. Psychoeducational Outcomes of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. School Psychology Review v24 n2 p200-12 1995

ERIC database abstract: "Relates chronicity, timing, and severity of alcohol exposure to age-specific developmental and behavioral consequences. Delineates specific interventions with infants, preschoolers, school-age children, and adolescents. Advocates making services for youngsters available early, and basing them on individual strengths and weaknesses as determined within a contextual framework."

Rust DM; Bowden RG. Improving School Success For Students With Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. International Electronic Journal of Health Education (INT ELECTRONIC J HEALTH EDUC), 2001 Jan 1-Dec 31; 4: 368-375 (53 ref)

CINAHL database abstract: "The consumption of alcohol during pregnancy is the cause of physical and behavioral defects known as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAE). The diagnosis of FAS is determined by thefollowing three criteria: (1) growth retardation, (2) central nervous system involvement (i.e., mental retardation), and (3) abnormal facial abnormalities. This article will review the issues of cause, diagnosis/characteristics, incidence/prevalence, and educational implications for the child exposed to prenatal alcohol."

Sluder, Linda C.; et al. Prenatal Drug Exposure: Meeting the Challenge.Childhood Education v73 n2 p66-69 Win 1996-97

ERIC database abstract: "Stresses need for early childhood educators to be prepared for prenatal drug exposed children, who may exhibit multiple disabilities in many areas. Suggests that cognitive and behavioral extremes preclude a list of best practices with this population. Recommends small, stable learning environments. Discusses need for educators and care providers to work together with community agencies. Includes table of behavioral indicators."

Streissguth, A.P.; Barr, H.; Kogan, J.; and Bookstein, F.L. "Understanding the Occurrence of Secondary Disabilities in Clients with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE)." Final Report to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Grant #R04/CCR008515. Seattle: University of Washington School of Medicine, 1996.

Copies can be obtained by contacting the Fetal Alcohol and Drug Unit at 206 543-7155.

Warren, K.; Foudin, L. Alcohol-Related Birth Defects- The Past, Present, and Future. Alcohol Research & Health, 2001, Vol. 25 Issue 3, p153-?

Academic Search Premier database abstract: "Traces the development in the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD). Difficulties involved in determining the prevalence of FAS and ARBD; Risk factors of FAS and ARBD; Assistance given to people born with FAS and ARND. INSET: IOM-RECOMMENDED DIAGONOSTIC CRITERIA FOR FAS AND ALCOHOL-RELATED."

Zevenbergen, A. Assessment and treatment of fetal alcohol syndrome in children and adolescents. Journal of Developmental & Physical Disabilities, Vol 13(2), Jun 2001. pp. 123-136.

Abstract: This paper describes characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) from infancy through adolescence. This paper also provides information regarding comorbidity of FAS with other psychological syndromes. The literature regarding assessment of FAS across childhood and adolescence is detailed; recommendations toward accurate assessment are included. Finally, this paper discusses treatment of FAS symptoms in children and adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2002 APA, all rights reserved)

Black, S. Born at Risk. Executive Educator v15 n6 p30-32 Jun 1993

ERIC database abstract: "Although educators are becoming familiar with fetal drug exposure, few realize how early alcohol exposure can cripple children's physical, social, academic development. Unlike some drug-affected kids, alcohol-exposed children seldom outgrow symptoms such as impaired IQ, impulsiveness, erratic sleeping patterns. Schools must identify and refer at-risk students for further evaluation, design appropriate educational programs, educate prospective parents about drinking dangers."

Burgess, D.M., and Streissguth, A.P. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles For Educators. Phi Delta Kappan 74(1):24 30, 1992.

Carmichael Olson, H.; Burgess, D.M.; and Streissguth, A.P. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE): A lifespan view, with implications for early intervention. ZERO TO THREE/National Center for Clinical Infant Programs 13(1):24-29, 1992a.

Streissguth, A. A Long-Term Perspective of FAS. Alcohol Health & Research World, Vol 18(1), 1994. pp. 74-81.

PsycINFO database abstract: "Reviews the literature on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and describes the findings of several long-term follow-up studies in the US and Europe. Two decades of research have validated early findings on the causes of FAS. As the 1st infant to be FAS diagnosed reaches his 20th birthday, it is time to start assessing adolescent and adult FAS manifestations and needs, very different from those of the FAS child. Although the physical features of FAS may change in adolescence and adulthood to resemble more the general population, the central nervous system problems remain. Results of long-term FAS studies indicate that FAS has lifelong mental and behavioral consequences, especially as many Ss are mentally retarded, which is often undetected. It is also at this time that FAS patients themselves begin to note how they are different from everybody else; once effective interventions are no longer valid."

Williams, B. ; et al. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Developmental Characteristics and Directions for Further Research. Education and Treatment of Children v17 n1 p86-97 Feb 1994

ERIC database abstract: "This paper presents an overview of how fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is identified, a review of theories on how alcohol acts to produce FAS, and a summary of the impact of the early and long-term effects of FAS. Issues that are particularly pertinent to children with FAS and their caregivers are raised."

Wentz, Thomas L.; Larson, J. The FAS Child: A Primer for Teachers. Insights v26 n4 Dec 1993

ERIC database abstract: "This primer on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) distinguishes between the syndrome and fetal alcohol effects (FAE), offers a history of FAS, outlines medical criteria for diagnosis, rates of incidence, factors influencing incidence and severity, developmental stages of children with FAS, clinical features, and educational implications and approaches. The primer points out that the single greatest block to the successful education of FAS/FAE students is the pervasive negative attitude surrounding these students due to the focus of research and media upon only the most severe minority of FAS/FAE students, which results in ignoring the identification and education of the less severely handicapped majority of FAS/FAE students. Contains 20 references and a list of 4 print resources."

Weinner, L.; Morse, B. Intervention and the child with FAS. Alcohol Health & Research World, Vol 18(1), 1994. pp. 67-72.

PsycINFO database abstract: "Reviews a number of studies on intervention for children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Interventions focus most on CNS defects that affect intelligence and behavior. Strategies include restructuring the child's environment, teaching the children how to learn, and providing consistency in the environment. FAS interventions include minimization of sensory overload; specialized learning environments; teaching of social skills behavior; and help with sleep disorders and eating problems. Society's response to FAS must also be improved in terms of the medical system, parents, the educational and legal system, and the community. It is suggested that a better understanding of FAS can be obtained through neuropsychological evaluation in comparison with other CNS disorders, improving diagnosis, separating FAS from other fetal drug disorders, and no longer regarding FAS children as mentally retarded."

Olson HC, Burgess DM, Streissguth AP. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE): A Lifespan View With Implications For Early Intervention. Zero to Three 1993;Aug/Sept(13): 24-29.

Weiner L, Morse BA. Facilitating development for children with fetal alcohol syndrome. The Brown U Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter 1991;Nov(7): 1-4.

Committee on Substance Abuse and Committee on Children with Disabilties, AAP. Fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Pediatrics 1993; 91(5): 1004-6.